Work-related stress affects both employers and employees.
Managing workplace stress can reduce illness and absenteeism, improve workplace relations and productivity, and help you avoid making bad business decisions.
The cost of ignoring stress
Stress is one of the single biggest causes of absence in the UK. In 2012, a quarter of employers surveyed stated that stress is one of the top five causes of workplace absence and two-fifths reported an increase in stress-related absence (CIPD, Absence Management Survey, 2012). HSE statistics show that 10.4 million days were lost in 2011/12 to workplace stress.
Work-related stress can result in high levels of employee turnover. This can disrupt business and reduce productivity. It also increases costs (for example, on recruitment and training).
Employees experiencing stress are more likely to make poor decisions and casual errors. They may apply faulty judgement to important matters. For example, in contract negotiations.
Workplace relations and customer service may deteriorate. Employees are likely to be more irritable and less tolerant.
Employees experiencing work-related stress might take their employer to court. Settlements can be expensive.
Recognise workplace stress
Stress is the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed upon them - it is not the same as pressure.
People facing challenges which they perceive they will have difficulty coping with may experience stress. The sooner stress is recognised as a potential problem, the sooner you can do something about it.
Stress can lead to behavioural changes in your employees. For example, those affected may:
- feel constantly rushed and unable to concentrate;
- not be able to switch off from work, or feel tired all the time;
- dread coming into work;
- lose their sense of humour and become moody and irritable;
- change the pattern of their working day (eg start staying late and consistently refuse to take breaks);
- start taking more sick leave;
- drop the standard of their work.
Employees may show signs of physical illness. For example, they may:
- complain of nausea, frequent headaches and migraines or other unexplained aches and pains;
- admit to sleeping badly;
- seem jumpy, or you may notice they are shaky or trembling.
Experiencing consistent levels of stress may lead to longer-term illnesses. Stress has been linked to asthma, high blood pressure, heart disease, ulcers, strokes and even cancer. It can also cause mental health problems, such as anxiety or depression.
There are many factors that can result in employees experiencing workplace stress. You may need to address several areas to remove the causes of the stress.
Demands of the job
- It is counterproductive to give employees too much to do or not enough time to complete it in on a continuous basis.
- Poor instructions or insufficient training can cause stress.
- Employees may over-estimate their own capacity for work and then be reluctant to admit they have bitten off more than they can chew.
Long hours and reluctance to take leave
- It may sometimes be necessary for employees to come in early and leave late. But working in excess of normal hours for extended periods can result in accidents and mistakes.
- Problems with a manager or fellow employee can be a major source of work-related stress.
- Humiliating employees, or allowing others to, leads to a loss of respect and co-operation from employees.
- Bullying or aggressive behaviour will certainly cause stress and can also lead to legal action.
- Ineffective management can cause employees stress. For example, failure to address known problem areas or deal with problem employees.
Periods of change
- Any change in the way a business operates can upset the working environment.
- Insufficient support or information during times of change or busy periods creates uncertainty.
- Lack of clarity about roles, responsibilities and objectives causes confusion and lack of direction.
- Managers should not ignore employees' personal problems.
- Bereavement, divorce, illness, moving home and financial problems can all cause high levels of stress that may impact on an employee's ability to carry out his or her job.
Tough at the top
Owner managers and directors often find their positions lonely and isolating, which itself can cause stress.
There is often little support in decision-making. Employees often expect the boss to know exactly what to do. Decision-making is more stressful if there is no-one to share responsibility should things go wrong.
Discussing work-related or personal problems with employees may feel inappropriate, leading to further feelings of isolation.
Try finding ways to talk. Create an informal group of colleagues who work at the same level in other companies. They will probably be just as keen to discuss their challenges at work as you.
Consider bringing in outside help. A mentor (or executive coach) could help you cope with the pressures of running a business.
Tackle the causes
Taking action to manage stress effectively can have a positive effect. Employees will be more committed to your business and productivity is likely to increase.
Introduce measures to reduce the demands of the job
- Set targets that are challenging but realistic.
- Make sure employees do not take on too much work. Encourage delegation where possible.
- Provide training in time management, if necessary. Encourage employees to prioritise and tackle the most important tasks first.
- Cut back on time-wasting activities, such as over-long meetings.
Take steps to avoid a long-hours culture
- Encourage employees to take regular short breaks, in addition to longer holidays to allow them to unwind fully.
- Make sure they take a lunch break, rather than eating on the job.
- Encourage employees to leave on time and to do something in complete contrast to their work.
Implement policies and procedures to improve working relationships
- Draw up a policy to prevent bullying and harassment.
- Consider training managers in interpersonal skills.
- Make sure there is someone within the company that employees can bring their problems to in confidence.
Establish a style of management that is appropriate and productive
- Rule by reward, not punishment. Let employees know their work is valued and appreciated.
- Review performance regularly, so employees know how well they are doing.
- Operate an open door policy, and encourage employees to approach you with problems.
- Monitor levels of absence and sickness leave.
- Survey staff to assess staff attitudes and experiences in the workplace.
- Draw up a stress policy stating that you take stress seriously and detailing how you plan to deal with workplace stress.
- Offer employees training, help, advice and support.
Inform employees about changes that affect the way the company operates
- Ensure employees understand the company's long-term goals.
- Explain the reasons for any change and how they might be affected.
- Arrange meetings to discuss new projects so everyone is clear what is happening and knows what is expected of them.
- Encourage two-way communication with staff. Ask for input, ideas and opinions.
Establish clear job descriptions
- Clarify employees' objectives and responsibilities.
Provide support to employees experiencing personal problems and difficulties
- Offer employees time off if necessary.
- Consider offering more flexible working arrangements.
- If appropriate, encourage employees to seek professional help.
Managing workplace stress
Be aware of your legal responsibilities. Under health and safety regulations you are responsible for the occupational health of your employees.
Implement the Health & Safety Executive management standards for work-related stress.
Conduct a stress risk assessment of your business. Your audit should highlight actual and potential causes of stress. It should reflect the areas of risk identified in the Health & Safety Executive management standards. The audit can be done by using questionnaires or by talking to staff, individually or in groups.
Put in place an effective stress policy and procedures for managers and employees. You can base your policy on the downloadable Health & Safety Executive model stress policy.
Make sure managers understand their roles and responsibilities in managing stress
Consider offering access to counselling services.
Sources of help
There are several sources of guidance on managing workplace stress
The government-funded Fit for Work (0800 032 6235) provides work-related health advice and help with sickness absence
The Health & Safety Executive publishes a range of work-related stress guidance including various tools and real-life examples of how businesses have managed stress effectively.
Acas offers tips and the advisory booklet Stress at work.
The Institute of Occupational Health and Safety provides a free occupational health toolkit including guidance on dealing with stress.
The Mental Health Foundation website has a range of free mental health publications and links to other useful sources of information.
You may want to get help from a professional:
The IoD's work on promoting good Mental Health
The IoD is committed to raising awareness of mental health issues in the workplace.
We have created a mental health hub to help business leaders promote and nurture good mental health in the workplace - and to help them spot the signs of mental health problems and know how to help. Our hub is packed full of helpful advice, best practice and resources as well as shared experiences from business leaders as to how they look after their own mental health and that of their employees.
Go to IoD mental health hub
If you found this factsheet useful you might benefit from joining the IoD:
Find out more about becoming a member of the IoD
Find work-related stress guidance from the Health & Safety Executive.
Download the Acas advisory booklet Stress at work.
Find guidance on dealing with stress in the Institute of Occupational Health and Safety occupational health toolkit.
Find mental health publications and links to other useful sources of information from the Mental Health Foundation.
Contact Fit for Work (0800 032 6235) for work-related health advice and help with sickness absence
Find stress management professionals and counselling services through the International Stress Management Association, the Employee Assistance Professional Association or the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (01455 883300).
Find a local NHS occupational health provider.
"Taking action to manage work-related stress effectively will bring dividends to all." - Caroline Raymond, Stress in Perspective Ltd
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